Push-Ups (PU)

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1. Test objective

Determination of dynamic strength endurance of the arm and upper body muscles.

2. Description of the task




In the push-up test, the subject is to perform as many push-ups as possible within 40 seconds. In the starting position, the subject lies prone, hands touching on the buttocks. She releases her hands behind her back, places them next to her shoulders and pushes off the floor until her arms are extended. Then one hand is released from the floor and touches the other hand. Then the arms are bent until the body is back in the prone position and the starting position has been assumed. Before a new push-up is performed, the subject touches the hands behind the back.

3. Test materials

 3.1 Space requirements: 2 m2
 3.2 Time and personla requirements: 1 test leader can test 1 test person within 2 minutes
 3.3 Equipment and materials: stopwatch or timer, mat


4. Test setup

A gymnastics mat is laid out in a free space in the room. This should be far enough away from other objects so that the test subjects have enough space to perform their push-ups. A stopwatch or timer is placed next to the mat.

5. Measurement recording

The test leader counts the push-ups performed correctly in 40 seconds.

The hard criteria for this are:

  • Only hands and feet touch the floor
  • Upper body, hips and legs remain almost in one line
  • One hand strikes the back of the other hand in support (crossover motion)
  • On the back is "clapped off"

Standard values
Numerous studies are available with information on mean values and standard deviations (see Beck & Bös, 1995, p. 118 ff). For the push-up, there are also comparative values for children and adults in the test literature (Bös, 1996, p. 56; for test variants, see Fetz & Kornexl, 1993; Grosser & Starischka, 1981).
Normal values for children and adolescents from 6 to 18 are published in the DMT Manual (Bös et al., 2009).

6. Test instruction

This test is about performing as many pushups as you can. However, these are not normal push-ups, so I'll demonstrate it once. You lie on your stomach with your legs closed and extended. Your hands touch each other on your buttocks. Now place your hands next to your shoulders and push yourself up. Your knees should come off the floor and your back and legs should remain straight. When your arms are extended, touch one hand to the other. Then support again with both hands and bend your arms until you are back on the floor. Now touch your hands behind your back and perform the next push-up. You can now try two push-ups. Then, after the start command, try to do as many push-ups as possible in 40 seconds.

7. Special notes

The exercise should be performed with sports shoes.
Are the seconds counted aloud?

Sources of error
Incorrect posture: The test leader should pay attention to body extension (straight back, legs stretched out) during the mock test and during the performance of the test and, if necessary, point this out to the test person.
When pressing up, the test person leaves the knees on the floor.

8. Sources

Beck, J. & Bös, K. (1995). Normwerte motorischer Leistungsfähigkeit: Köln: Strauss.

Bös, K. (1996). Fitness – testen und trainieren. München: Copress Verlag, 54-56.

Bös, K., Schlenker, L., Büsch, D., Lämmle, L., Müller, H., Oberger, J. & Tittlbach S. (2009). Deutscher Motorik-Test 6 - 18. (DMT 6 - 18) (Schriften der Deutschen Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft, 186). Hamburg: Czwalina.

Fetz, F., & Kornexl, E. (1993). Sportmotorische Tests: praktische Anleitung zu sportmotorischen Tests in Schule und Verein. Wien: ÖBV, Pädag. Verlag.

Grosser, M. & Starischka, S. (1981). Konditionstests. München: BLV

Haag, H. (1970). Fitnesstests. Praxis der Leibesübungen, 11 (1/4/6), 3–5, 66–67, 113–115.


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